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Here the poet's verses are the winged horses which will bear over the world the car, Chro- mios' victory.

For metaphor cf. Mr Wratislaw asks in a paper read before the Camb. More- over, Yet again, as the chief temples would have their foundations laid at the time of the founding of the city, ffbv has to cover more than two years.

The intervention of the suggested mention of Aetna's temples is iso- lated itself and isolates vv. Terpander Frag. Paley says, 'Lit. I think dperal would scarcely be used in the plural of one ' vic- tory,' which is all we have here.

For sentiment, cf. The meaning of the sentence is, ' The consumma- tion or ' first prize ' of highest re- nown ' i. For phrase cf. Perhaps there is a covert allusion to the temples of Demeter and her daughter built by Gelo.

The Schol. The grammar of the transition is well illustrated by the double accusative Aristoph. It is equivalent to a wros , ' choicest bloom.

Paley however, on Martial ix. Infra v. Mr Fanshawe suggests that the lemma, coming so close to iivaffrripa. The aor. It is generally taken as the object of ttrefiav.

I think the sense inferior and the construction ques- tionable, though it is true that ITTI- palvuv takes an accusative of place.

Mommsen on Ol. Mr Myers 'Thus shoot I arrows many and without falsehood have I hit the mark' scarcely repre- sents the original.

Pindar has briefly mentioned five points on which a poet might dilate, the di- vine patronage of Sicily, its fer- tility, the wealth of its cities, its achievements in war and in games.

He has stated truths without exag- geration. According to L. For Chromios' hospitality cf. I therefore give the views of the chief authorities before my own.

In this difficult sentence the poet checks himself the sugges- tion of the necessity for doing so being a compliment to Sicily, Sy- rakuse and Hiero, the fact that he does so a compliment to Chromios.

For the sense given to Kaipbv cf. Mr Postgate has kindly sent me an interpreta- tion substantially the same as the above, and quotes Nem.

Mommsen after a Schol. An improvement in this line of inter- pretation seems to be "Tis men's lot when cavilling at the good to bring water to check smoke,' i.

The two last interpretations make too abrupt a disconnection of sense, not to mention the rare construc- tion which is assumed. Mezger cites Strabo to defend the dat.

Bergk would alter TI- X. Plutarch, Fragm. The connection of this difficult passage is not impaired by making the statement general. Divers folk have divers arts.

This comprehends the idea that it is the poet's work to perpetuate a victory as much as it is the work of men of action to gain one.

One must walk up- rightly and make the best use of natural powers. Strength, to wit, has its function in action, intellect in counsel, in the case of those who have an innate gift of foresight which class includes the poet and also, as is at once stated, Chromios.

OL ix. Teiv, Nem. Ill, dfj. For the expectations of men, born to sore trouble as all are, are uncertain for all alike.

Theognis, , rdv O. T-f p ; ' did thy father then beget thee to be a match for all men? T Tos aiuiv. Hermann uis apa or r. I incline to Bockh's beginning of v.

The adverb indicates the normal progress of the delivery as in The infant lamos too was visited by two snakes, but they came to feed him. Paley suggests ; for the effect of the subsequent miracle would be impaired by such a pre- liminary display of power.

The use recalls the passive sense often given to tKiriirreiv, dirodave'iv. Ren- der simply ' had been laid in. For the form in the text cf.

For the synizesis cf. In the Lydo- Aeolic ode, For the episode of the infant Herakles and the serpents cf. Whether the doors were left open at night, or had been opened in the early morning, or were opened by the serpents is left un- certain.

Paley's note. I do not think eAtWeo-tfcu, could mean to ' enfold ' with jaws. Aiax, commented on in note on Nem. Paley observes that this action is miraculous in a new- born infant.

A bold phrase both in con- struction and sense. Of course 0,7x6- yu. It is quite possible that there is some corruption, but it is impossible to establish a cor- rection.

Si- monides Frag. There is a slight pre- ponderance of MS. For confusion of fj. Theokritos makes Herakles nine months old.

Plautus agrees with Pindar as to the age. On a coin of Thebes see Plate facing Title the child does not seem to represent a new-born babe.

Greek women seem not to have had special night gear. Bergk recklessly alters wofffflv to iraialv. So best MSS. The Tricli- nian MSS. For the lengthen- ing of -ov before a vowel cf.

The Triclinian MSS. Oe'iav, Od. Paley rightly explains fj. Others simply render it 'affected by,' comparing Soph. Zeus, by transmit- ting superhuman qualities to his son.

Thus Sercrtws KT. Archilochos, Frag. For the junction of the definite article with the definite pronoun cf. V 5' d Ktipios I irapy rts, Oed. Bergk reading v.

Hermann reads v. Keeping fj. Eauchenstein, Hermann and Bergk propose n. OTei'x-] Cf. The Phlegra where the gods fought the Giants was in Thrace.

Goodwin, For the ace. The phrase however occurs Nem. Saivvira ydfji Cf. QV, vofj. The ode was apparently sung at Athens. It is a processional monostrophic ode.

It is impossible to draw any sound inference about the place of composition. Bockh fancies that it was composed at Nemea after the battle of Plataea with Fragment 53 [45].

Perhaps the opening allusion to the Homeridae was due to Salamis being one of the aspirants to the honour of being Homer's birthplace. The rhythm like that of Nem.

He ought still, since his Fate has led him straight along the path his fathers trod and caused him to do honour to Athens by winning at Nemea , to win often at the Isthmus and Delphi.

When the Pleiades are seen, Orion is to be expected. Salamis can rear fighting men such as the Trojan warrior Aias and the pankratiast Timodemos.

The Acharnians were famous of old. The citizens are bidden to celebrate Timode'mos' return as victor from Nemea. The opening to which Pindar refers is probably preserved by Theokritos, xvu.

It is as old as Alkman, cf. Aios K. For the metaphor from laying a foundation cf. The grove was of cypresses. Note-that piy is ace. Observe that K0fffj.

Paley's noteHes. Catullus, LXVI. The 'fi probably represents f or f af, cf. So Simonides quoted by a Schol.

For the opposi- tion of Aias to Hektor cf. Bockh, -faroi. He is regarded as the hero Eponymos of the Peloponnese.

There was perhaps some special reason why the Timo- demidae do not appear in connec- tion with the Olympian games. Note the emphatic position, and cf.

He won this victory many years before the composition of the ode, as he seems to have been well advanced in age vv. The poet seems to apologise for his delay v.

From vv. The ode was per- formed in the hall or temple of the college of theori. The date is evidently prior to the Athenian conquest of Aegina Schmidt fancifully connects the ode with Pyth.

It was sung by a chorus of youths v. The Rhythm is Aeolian, or Lydian with Aeolian measures v. The muse is entreated to go to Aegina on the anniver- sary of a Nemean victory, where a chorus awaits her.

An ode is the highest object of a victor's ambition. The muse is entreated to inspire the poet to begin the hymn with Zeus of Nemea and to praise the country of the Myrmidons.

Aristophanes' son, having done justice to his fine form, has attained to the highest achievements. One cannot well pass the pillars which Herakles set up at the limit of his Western explorations.

The poet is digressing. His theme is the race of Aeakos. It is the height of justice to praise the worthy. But it is not good to yearn for distinctions for which one's inborn nature has not fitted one.

The victor need not do so, as he inherits worth. The legend of Peleus is appropriate to him. Exploits of Peleus. Innate worth is best. Acquired capacities are fruitless.

The above doctrine is illustrated by Achilles' childhood, by the aged Cheiron and by the manhood of Achilles. Invocation of Zeus.

This beseems Aristokleidas who has brought glory to Aegina and the college of Pythian theori. Trial proves a man's excellence in all stages of life.

Four divisions of life bring four several virtues. The victor partakes of all four. Dedication of the ode. As the eagle swoops from afar upon its prey, so the poet can seize upon the theme of a long past victory.

But the flight of chattering crows has a lower range. By favour of Kleio the victor has won glory from Nemea, Epidauros and Megara. For special mention of the full moon of the Olympian festival cf.

The Nemean Festi- val was probably not on the new. We cannot however be sure that the poet wishes to represent himself as present in Aegina, as rdvdf vacrov v.

The verb should literally be ren- dered 'do thou bid attend,' as in II. Alkman, Frag. According to a Schol.

Aristarchos and Am- monios took Uranos to be given as the father of the Muse, reading either three datives or three geni- tives, but it is presumable that Pindar began with Zeus and fol- lowed Hesiod.

On this point Diodorus Siculus iv. Bergk alters needlessly to QvpavoT a hypothetical form for Ovpavia. It is better to take Kpeovn as a dat.

Surely it is appropriate to any Nemean or Olympian ode, even if nothing special be said about Zeus. More- over cf.

Kav vaLSuv oapoiai. For undetected instances of causal middle cf. The Myrmidons were sup- posed to have migrated with Peleus from Aegina to Phthiotis.

Tov dyopav. I prefer ' in reference to thy standard, Kleio. Moschopulos from one or two MSS. The lemma, which ought to be in L.

Paley renders, ' deep-soiled,' not ' with low-lying plain. It is scarcely a historic present, which is rare in Pindar, but cf. For sentiment cf.

Pausanias n. The con- quest of sea-monsters by Herakles is probably a mythical dress given to the suppression of pirates by Hel- lenic mariners.

T' tpevv-. A Schol. Bockh inserts e-, Her- mann OUT'. Curtius rejects the connection with rtyyw, which is given by a Schol.

Paley; 'Where he came to land at the bourne which sped him on his homeward way,' i. For the genitive cf. Paley renders 'defined the limits of the earth,' Schol.

For infinitive cf. He is complimenting the victor, not, as Leop. Schmidt thinks, warning him against unwise ambition.

Mr Postgate takes tv IT. We must admit some unique forms. His reference to dtdopKev, Nem. Peleus is represented as still rejoicing in the renown of his spear cutting, sung by rhapsodists, cf.

For Peleus cf. P41eus overcame the host of the mortal Akastos son of Pelias according to a Schol. Pherekydes related that he was assisted by lasdn and the Dioskuroi and also the divijie Thetis.

For hiatus cf. Mommsen, Adnot. The second in- stance is perhaps not to the point. Troilus, tyrujxv, wj Zyrjfj. Note the omission of any mention of He"rakles in connection with Telamdn and lolaos.

We use 'nobility' for the qualities which ennoble. The aorist is gn6mic. Generally dperat means either 'merits,' 'virtues,' or 'victories' or 'noble deeds.

The boy had small weapons. Iff a T'. Ti would be unsatisfactory. Moreover mention of Achilles' panting seems in bad taste.

Dissen and others take the gen. The MSS. Ion, , says that Kapirbs is not used of children, but of seed, as Moiin KO. For bracelets in connection with Thetis, cf.

In uncials p and TT were very easily confused. I decidedly incline to the former explanation. AapSdviiw re. Perhaps the kinship in prophetic faculty as well as in blood accounts for his being here called cousin of the seer Helenos rather than of any other son of Priamos.

But Helenos was connected with Aegina by the ser- vices which he rendered to the Aeakid Neoptolemos, for whom cf. Tithonos was brother to Priamos.

See v. Mezger compares Aesch. Trpewris with a copula. For d-yX. HvOiov Qedpiov. To this college the victor doubtless be- longed. There were similar colleges of perpetual ffeupol at Mantinea, Thuk.

Miiller, Dorier, n. This closing pas- sage is very difficult to under- stand. TOS against taicpos which would hardly need the article. Bender ' The sum of mortal life brings even four virtues, for it bids us as a fourth virtue exercise pru- dence with regard to the present.

But looking back to the exploits of Achilles aet. That he is speaking of the virtues proper to each age is clear from v.

Aristokleidas was not necessarily approaching old age at the date of this ode any more than Damophilos, Pyth. But Pindar would hardly apply the metaphor of honey so often to his verse e.

The main idea is a sweet thought. Tos irodosirap-rjv got milk and honey. Perhaps the veKrap X. VTOV of Philostratos, In Vitis Sopliistt.

For the draught of song cf. For the eagle seizing the hare, cf. See Plate. Simonides, Frag. The poet means that it is easy for him to give lively interest to a distant event in a case where the ode of an inferior poet would fall flat.

For omens iu names cf. For prep, with -0ev, cf. The phrase dtdoptc. This last victory was won B. The ode was most likely processional, as it is monostrophic.

The rhythm is Lydian with Aeolian measures. It was probably sung before a banquet as a irpoKwuiov v. Feasting and song are the best recompense for severe struggles.

Had Timokritos been alive he would have played the lyre on the occasions of his son's victories at Nemea, Athens and Thebes. Telamon's exploits as Herakles' comrade.

Achievements entail suffering. The poet checks himself and bids the victor strive boldly against calumnies. The poet again checks himself.

Praise of the victor and his family. Praise of his trainer Melesias. For the phrase cf. Mommsen how- ever [comparing Pyth.

However, Plutarch, de Tranqu. Paley says the metaphor is from drawing arrows out of a quiver, but the epithet fiafffias rather suggests choosing from a rich store.

See on fiaOv- Sofos, Pyth. The case is not discussed Goodwin 61 64 ; it should come under Paley renders TO 6tnev, 'to offer this tribute ; ' Cookesley ' dedicate this prelude.

TfKai Te. For the mention of the locality of the games, the victor's achievement and the god of the games together, cf. The latter most likely.

For the justice of Aeginetans cf. Are we then in this pas- sage to take the obvious physical meaning, or to take it causatively Pyth.

TroiKiXoyapvv, For con- struction cf. Bender ' devoting him- self Paley to such a strain. But Mezger more cautiously calls the father only a musician, which is all that can be strictly inferred from the passage.

The slight deviation of Bergk's viov from the MS. By com- paring other Scholl. I have thought of 7ra? Some substantive denoting the victor is, as Bergk saw, almost needed to justify the change from the second person to the third vv.

Apart from grammatical considerations onehyrnn couldhard- ly be mentioned as accompanying two or three victories unless it were the ode in progress, in which case we should expect the present or future participle.

Those who like Prof. VOP, that the v. The citizens of KXewvai near Nemea managed the Nemean games for a long time, including the dates of these two odes Nem.

Plutarch, Vit. One Schol. It is possible that tipfj-ov yrf. The skeleton of the sentence is KeXa- Srjffe 6'. Kal aw 'A0. The Scholl. Pindar speaks of 'loXciou Tildas in connection with these games, For the other Theban games held outside the Gate of Elektra s.

Bockh quotes Pausanias, vi. Mezger renders 'ran down through the city : ' see next note. These were the inhabitants of the Isle of Kos.

There seems to be a confusion with the legend of Ggryones by the Schol. Apollodoros i. The statement that Telamdn van- quished Alkyoneus may be in ac- cordance with Aeginetan legend, but the language need not be pressed.

What Telamdn did with Herakles may include what Herakles did himself. XaXivbv [ IlaXXcij fjveyic', Elsewhere in Pindar irpiv as a con- junction takes the infinitive.

Amphiaraos has TeOpiTnrovs Eur. Siipplices, In Smith's Diet, of Ant. Currus, the four-horse war chariots of post- Homeric Greek literature are ig- nored.

They were perhaps borrowed from the Persians. Euripides gives four-horse war chariots to Hyl- los and Eurystheus, Heracl. Sis rocrouj. With the pres.

Pindar has apparently adapted and extended the old formula which asserted that we must take the consequences of our conduct.

Paley says 'Aristotle Eth. Persae, P. A more comprehensible explanation is to be found, without even making the poet say the celebration of the victory when he means the victory.

Probably the Theban Herakleia were celebrated at the beginning of the month, for the theme which he now dismisses is closely connected both in grammar and mythical association with the Theban victory mentioned, v.

As for the tense of tvyyi? The 5 then is disjunctive, introducing a sort of apology for the previous digression.

Tos , Har- tung, vtq. We shall surely be seen returning from the strug- gle in full light superior to our foes, while our adversaries, of en- vious mien or ' blinded by envy' keep their ineffectual saws tossing in obscurity till they sink to the ground.

Pindar likens him- self to a swimmer wrestling with a deep sea in foul weather. Though 39 he were immersed all but head and shoulders, the sea, if likened to a wrestler, would be said to hold him by the waist, that grip being apparently the strongest known to the palaestra.

His adversaries' inventions are the ineffectual waves of the sea of hostile criticism which are vanquished by the wrestling swimmer, who then comes to the haven of success in the light of fame.

So Ulysses t d. Thus instead of the mixture of metaphor with which this passage has been charged, we have one compound metaphor work- ed out regularly except in one minor detail.

Donaldson is in- accurate in saying that Pindar, compares his enemies to the waves of the sea. The conse- quent error of taking Satuv virkp- repoi.

It is peculiarly appropriate in reference to wrestling. Tbe presence of the compound metaphor of wrestling with a sea is generally admitted, so that if vv.

I cannot approve Mr Postgate's suggestion that the simile is drawn from a mountainous country. Presently, like the Persians at Thermopylae, he carries the heights above them and pursues his way down the sunlit valleys on the other side.

Again, the contrasted shade and sunshine are not essential to the idea, as they are according to my explana- tion. Thirdly, avrireiv' does not suggest the manoeuvre of ' turn- ing ' a position.

This passage con- tains many points which need com ment or illustration. TfVKpOV dfj. This passage scarcely illus- trates the position of fytTra, as Don.

Pindar himself uses the usual participle or adjectival phrase with Kalwep at least four times. Ahrens proposed tu.

Kel Trepexfi; Don. The sugges- tions KCU, Kecirep are open to ques- tion, as the case seems neither imaginary nor, though actual, con- ceded with reluctance, or made light of.

Still the omission of ere is curious. The metre allows us to read o-' after ptaffov, v. A reading peffcrovs would easily pass into peffaovs and be corrected to fj-effffov.

Ham- let's ' sea of troubles. X Tivd fj. I think the word may here mean 'receives d-jrapxat,' i. Pausanias, in. Our Schol. Strabo places it close to Pharsalos.

Both may be right, as each town may have boasted one. Trpbs 'loviov iropov. For the interpretation we must compare Eur.

Un- fortunately scholars are not at one as to this use of Siairepav ; Hermann, followed by Paley, reads MoXoo-cnas as gen.

The word Siairepav with a word signifying city or country as object seems to be used only with a deity or a king as subject. As to the etymology, I doubt whether Don.

The u is Aeolic, though several instances of the change of A to v, e. Certainly both Epeiros and the part of Asia best known to the Ancient Greeks are remarkably well watered by rivers.

The southerly spurs of the mountain range which runs from Pindus Lat. By the 'Idptoc irbpnv Pindar meaus the sea between the islands and the coast of Epeiros rather than the whole sea between Italy and Greece.

For the subject cf. Other scholars alter or render intransitively ' having ap- proached. If the double accus.

For such hiatus cf. The exploit is mentioned Nem. It is not unlikely that the myths invert the true sequence of events, and that the Aeakids either came themselves or were allies of folk who came from the neighbourhood of Ddd6na through Thessaly and so to Delphi and lolkos and Aegina.

It is usually rendered ' having ex- perienced,' though the examples given are not quite parallel, as the dative substantives belong to the subject, not, as here, to another person; e.

Perhaps Aesch. The verses quoted from Hes. However when he got possession of the sword he may have changed his mind.

Apollodoros, in. The poet has reached the extreme limit of mythi- cal digression. For particles cf.

It emphasises the whole sentence. The sub- stitution of this phrase for vpvov anticipates an apodosis. Perhaps gram- matically the effect of minstrelsy in general illustrated by a simile in- troduced parathetically, cf.

Or is the con- struction straightforward save for a natural impressive asyndeton and an easy omission, the drift being as follows : ' If thou biddest me cele- brate Kallikles in song, know that this is the highest possible boon ; it shall be granted '?

It should be observed that this simile is drawn from molten gold. The word must not be applied literally to o-eXiVo, for the Isthmian crown was of withered,?

See the follpwing scheme. So MSS. Cookesley wrongly makes Euphanes the subject instead of the object of ZXneiv.

For the technical use cf. For the appropriate metaphor cf. For the infinitive ZXiceiv cf. For the trainer Melesias cf. From the trainer receiving such prominent honour as the theme of the conclusion in Nem.

It sim- ply means the man who ' draws a by ' where an odd number of com- petitors are matched in pairs. Here Melesias and his resentful rivals are paired, but Euphanes is ready to take up his quarrel.

The elder brother's Nemean victory was earlier. They belonged to the noble ndrpa of the Psalychidae of Aegina Isth. Their father.

Lampon was son of Kleonikos Isth. Trpwra Herod, ix. Critics are cruel enough to make these two Lampons probably identical, either Pytheas Don.

However we know that cousins did some- times bear the same name, and the name of the victor Pytheas is no proof that his grandfather was Pytheas.

If he were not the eldest son he would be more likely to be named after another senior mem- ber of the family than after his grandfather. So that the identity of Herodotos' and Pindar's Lampon is not more than possible.

The following stemma, mostly hypothetical, shows how, accord- ing to the A ttic habits of Nomenclature, the victor might get his name, without his father having been adopted.

The names marked with a star are mentioned by Pindar. The rhythm is Dorian with exception of a few Lydian metres. The poet is not a maker of motionless statues, but his song travels by every craft to tell of Pytheas' Nemean victory won as a boy.

He did honour to the Aeakids and Aegina, 9 The poet hesitates to say why Peleus and Telamon left Aegina.

Truth is not always to be told. And silence is often the truest wisdom. The poet is equal to uttering the high praises of the Aeakids for wealth, athletics and war.

For them the Muses sang of the temptation of Peleus and his marriage with Thetis. Family destiny decides as to achievements.

The victor's maternal uncle was a victor. Acknowledgment of the services of the Athenian trainer Menandros.

The victor's maternal grandfather was a victor at Epi- dauros in both boxing and the pankration. This ode is particularly easy of general comprehension.

From mention of the victor the poet passes rapidly to the myth of Peleus, which illustrates inter alia the saw that 'truth is not always to be told ; ' a maxim which applies more or less to every family and to most indi- viduals.

Still there might be a reference to the discredit attaching to the family from the notoriety of the dvoo-iararos Xoyoj of Larnpon, son of Pytheas, or to some other specific family skeleton.

The last fifteen lines are devoted to the illustration of the poet's favorite theory that excellence is hereditary, in this case through the mother chiefly.

It is likely that Pytheas intended to compete at Epidauros before long, as the poet ends off with his grandfather's exploits there. Inferior MSS.

But tpydfcffOai properly has an initial f. An allusion to statuary was peculiarly appropriate in Aegina at this period, as Mezger remarks, quoting Schelling.

Then Onatas was nourishing. Add Od. The sense is rather ' on the base and nowhere else,' cf. Pindar means that travellers from Aegina will mention or even recite his ode.

Paley renders ' broad-shouldered. The present vlKtjfju. TI occurs Theokr. TOi yvovro. The Greek verb Trans. The Impf. V rpliroSa, infra, v.

See Schneider, s. Aeakos m. Th tis Telani6n Phdkos Peleus m. Aias 8. It bears the same sense in Apoll. This seems sound except as to the meaning of the V fas- We cannot well attach the meaning 'prayer,' 'desire,' to Odysseus' old dog.

He was ' neg- lected,' 'rejected,' rather than 'un- prayed for,' 'prayed against,' 'un- desirable. For HaffiQerj, not ' die allbegehrte,' but ' ordaining ordering for all,' cf.

It denotes not only motion beside, but exten- sion beside Kiihner. Homer has the forms II. Endais, Aeakos' wife, was daughter of Cheiron.

For the slaughter of Phdkos, cf. Apollo- doros, in. Whether the use of dXrrjpes would make our kind of long jump dangerous is not proved; that they could not enable a leaper to reach 50 feet seems certain.

The danger suggests a descent. I have given a great deal of attention to modern athletics, and it seems to me that we need the assumption of a fall of 30 ft.

It is obvious that the distance of the leap was measured along a given direction; but that there was a maximum limit of length is incredible.

See my note on Pyth. As for Hor. Their achievement does not appear to have been a disadvantage. Any official mark of distance would be for a warning to spectators and a guide to competitors, not a check Cf.

KpaTiffTov d'irav better that exact truth should unveil her face. I reXevrf peprarov dvdpl rvxelv, Nem. Curtius, The Greek Verb Tram. TOV rwv irevTa.

From this notice and our fj. It was said to have been originally fifty feet long, and Phayllos of Krot6na was said to have jumped nearly five feet beyond it at Delphi.

The swift straight flight of the eagle may well be described as if it were the result of one impulse, like the flight of a stone or a javelin.

Note that ova fly, Ger. In Mr Sandys on Eur. This saying might well be introduced into the account of Peleus' honourable repulse of Hip- polyte.

AIDS apx-] Cf. For ffKoirov cf. Bender, 'to the effect Of course Trelffcus refers back fiev Spxov, ' to utter an oath guile- to Zeus.

Isthmos are mentioned because Lat. Phylakidas was preparing to com- For Especially in the pankra- or May, when the AeginStan Del- tion.

Cookesley points out the ex cep- Menandros' aid was somehow se- tion to Monk's rule that 0eos is not cured by public effort. Themistios was Euthy- compares Soph.

Dissen cites frigeo Cic. Tas av-ijp Iffriov avefwev. For the meaning had been victor at the Aeakeia, and 'victory,' 'glory,' cf.

Note the present rx. The poet appears to have been engaged by the clan or Melesias rather than by the victor himself.

According to K. Miiller the Bassidae were Herakleids. That the poet composed the ode at Aegina has been inferred from rdv 8e vaa-ov v.

Men and gods are of common origin but have diverse powers, yet men, for all their ignorance of the future, are a little like immortals.

The victor's family illustrates this. For its powers are shown in alternate generations. Celebration of the success of the victor and his ancestors.

No other family has won more boxing matches. The poet's high praises are true and proper. He invokes the Muse to glorify the victor.

Bards and chroniclers revive the memory of great deeds. Such as those of the Bassidae which the poet enumerates. Praise of older Aeakidae, especially of Achilles.

But the present achievement is ever most interesting. The poet willingly undertakes the double duty of pro- claiming the twenty-fifth victory of the clan.

The lot disappointed them of two Olympian victories. Melesias as a trainer is as pre-eminent as a dolphin is for swiftness among creatures of the deep.

Commonly read after the MSS. Most commentators render in effect, with Cookesley, 'The race of man is one, the race of gods is another, though both are created of one another.

But a totally different power dis- tinguishes the two races , since the one is worthless, but the firm heaven eternally remains an imperishable mansion for the other.

Yet we resemble them to a certain degree. As the Greek for 'one' occurs thrice in the space of so few words, each and all of the three would seem to be intended to emphasize the idea of unity.

The asyndeton is not in- appropriate in a solemn conjunction of opposed ideas. Uma imagem do Cinzeiro do CJ com algumas bitucas.

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It may seem that I have not profited as much as I might by one friendly criticism, namely, the suggestion that I sometimes gave too many explanations of one passage.

I admit that as a rule it is a great mistake in an editor to seem to halt between two or more opinions. But I have sometimes given the views of others as well as my own, so as to give teachers and mature scholars the materials on which to exercise their own judgment in case they were dissatisfied with mine.

In other cases I have come to the unsatisfactory conclusion, after strenu- ous and prolonged efforts to arrive at some one definite solution of a problem, either that it was insoluble or that viii PREFACE.

Pindar is so exceptionally difficult an author that few who read his odes will be in danger of inferring from an editor's occasional indecision that any given set of Greek words may mean almost anything you please.

No doubt critics are perfectly right to protest against any semblance of the tendency, shown in several modern commentaries, towards unjustifiable vacillation.

In particular I have found that Isth. Again, Nem. It will be many years before a second edition is required, but I should be very grateful for criticisms of both volumes, as I am already preparing for the eventual issue of a revised edition.

The references to Liddell and Scott are to the sixth edition. The Fragments are numbered according to Bergk's 3rd Ed.

Bockh's numbers are given in brackets. MY explanation of Nem. Gardner and Dr Pinder Der Fiinfkampf der Hellenen, Berlin, , and moreover my view of the nature of the pentathlon is, I believe, to a great extent new.

It seems advisable therefore to explain and defend my posi- tion at greater length than the limits of a commentary permit.

I also agree with Prof. Gardner and Dr Pinder that victory in only three contests was necessary to win the prize in spite of Aristides, Panathen.

But I hold in opposition to Professor Gardner that the competitors all contended at once in leaping, discus-throwing, and spear-throwing, and also in running, save that all com- petitors who were beaten by one competitor or more in the first three contests may have at once retired as beaten.

Similarly all wrestled, or at least those who had not been beaten by any one competitor in three out of the first four contests. V, but only distribute its application.

It follows from my hypothesis that the first in wrestling, if there was any, won the pentathlon. But still a winner could not, as Prof.

Gardner urges, in objection to Dr Finder's scheme, "be very inferior in the three first contests. Gardner's, which I here quote from p. The '' successful athletes of the pairs, that is, those who had won any " three events out of the five would then again be drawn against each " other, and so on until only two were left, between whom the final " heat took place.

In wrestling, boxing, and the pankration we have " reason to hold that this took place, and it seems all but certain that " it must have taken place also in the pentathlon.

Gardner writes, ib. If after the leaping only " five competitors were allowed to remain in, and in each of the subse- " quent contests the worst man were excluded, it is clear that by the " time the wrestling came on only two would be left, between whom the " final victory would lie.

Gardner shews with all the slight tes- timony given by antiques and by writers. Still it is quite possible that a minimum of proficiency was required in the first four contests, as Dr Pincler assumes in regard to the first.

In supporting the objection to Dr Finder's view that " if it were true, those contests which Dr Pinder asserts to be the most important," the first three, " would count for very little.

In this case, why should his statue bear the halteres and his prize-vase contain no allusion to wrestling?

Gardner's scheme to Flavius Philostratos' Argonautic pentathlon de Gymn. Gardner p. According to Professor Gardner's view of the comparative merits of the heroes, Peleus was only third best in each of the first four contests.

In assuming that Zetes or Kalais might be left in for the last heat on his own system he must imply that either of them might beat Lynkeus and Telamdn in wrestling ; as the sons of Boreas were last in merit in discus and spear-throwing.

Now suppose the heats were as fol- lows : I. Peleus 1. Kalais 2. On this assumption, which ought not to be arbitrarily excluded, Peleus would not even have a success in leaping in Zetes 1.

Kalais 1. Peleus ephedros. Kalais ephedros. Lynkeus 2. Telam6n 2. Zetes 2. If any justifica- tion beyond artistic requirements see Dr Waldstein's letter be needed it is furnished by the evidence Flav.

Phil, de Gymn. On my hypothesis, according to Prof. Gardner's own view of the heroes' merit, we get the subjoined simple scheme. I need not make any assumption as to the numbers in the case of Tisamenos.

Pausanias says of him, in. TW 'A. If these were the only competitors and Hieronymos was first in spear and discus-throwing Pausanias seems to say too much and too little.

My hypothesis avoids the following difficulty entailed by assuming that each kind of contest was decided separately and also that three absolute victories were necessary to gain the prize.

If two competitors were each first twice, or if 3, 4, or 5 competitors were each first once, we have on these assump- tions no means of determining the final decision.

I will now indicate the difficulties which I consider fatal to Prof. Gardner's theory, but which mine avoids. First Prof.

Gardner admits p. We must not forget that the pentathlon " was in high favour among the Greeks" p.

Then as to the pentathlon going on during other contests Pausanias tells us, vi. This passage then supports the "at first sight" interpretation of Xenophdn, Hettenica, vu.

The most conclusive 1 passage on this point is Pausanias v. This passage, together with ib. These citations offer an argument against the system of heats for the pentathlon as they tend to shew that contests which took place in the same place came together.

First the scene was in the dromos, then in the hippodromes, then the pentathlon in leaping- and hurling-ground, dromos, and wrestling-place whence there was no further move till night.

Thirdly comes the difficulty presented by the great ad- vantage which an epJiedros would have over competitors who had wrestled. Gardner justly says p.

Fifthly, it seems strange that a popular contest should be carried on during other contests, and that its interest should be divided.

Even in Plutarch Symp. Gardner's plan. Frommel, p. But Aristides, Panathenaicus, p. Plutarch and Aristides allude either to the most famous pentathloi of old, who would naturally occur first to the minds of late writers, if they thought of old times at all, or perhaps to the exhibitions of professional athletes of their own times ; while Plato refers to ordinary cases in the fifth and fourth centuries B.

The authority of the Scholiast ad Aris- tidem is perhaps somewhat lowered by the fact that he does not repudiate the idea that the pankration might have taken the place generally assigned to the leaping see, however, Plin.

The appointment of only three Hellanodikae for the pen- tathlon is to my mind almost an argument against pairs being set to work simultaneously ; for one official is required at the starting line to see that the leap or throw is fair, and another to determine the lengths, unless the one walks backwards and forwards, so wasting a great deal of time.

Then again an extra judge might well be wanted to see that in the first two contests, or one of them, competitors did not purposely take it easy, which would give them a consider- able unfair advantage in the last three or four contests.

The placing of several competitors in three or four con- tests, which I have assumed, takes more judging than merely placing the first two.

But after all the appointment of three Hellanodikae is fully accounted for by the pentathlon taking such a much longer time than the other contests.

It is not easy to see why the question of stopping the pen- tathlon owing to the disqualification of a competitor pp.

Since a false throw would presumably make a competitor last in the second contest, he would therefore on Dr Finder's theory retire beaten whether disqualified or not.

It does not even follow that a false throw would disqualify in the spear-throwing alone ; but even if another try were allowed a false throw would be highly detrimental to success.

I have often seen the best jump or throw of ball or hammer disallowed at an early stage of the contest to the discomfiture of the competitor who had thus wasted his best effort.

For the competitor who won the discus- hurling would often if he had lost the spear-throwing be debarred from wrestling by his principal rival beating him or being first in leaping, spear-throwing, and running.

Now Prof. Gardner, though he speaks of " five very various contests " p. It seems to me that a frequent distribution would be that suggested by the actual case of Tisamenos and Hierdnymos.

Tisamenos superior in leaping and running, and Hieronymos in discus-hurling, so that the spear -throwing was a crucial point in this contest.

Had Tisamenos won it, the words eeTrep. Hence perhaps its prominence on vases p. I am fortunate in being able to correct and supplement my own remarks by the subjoined letter.

MY DEAR FENNELL, The only information bearing on the special question you are treating of, which I am capable of giving, is based upon a study of the general history of athletic games and palaestric insti- tutions in their relation to Greek social and political life and more especially in their relation to Greek art.

Let me point out one interesting point which has strongly im- pressed itself upon me. The principle of the pictorial decoration of a large number of athletic prize- vases is identical with the principle on which Pindar forms his odes.

In both vase-paintings and odes we have an indication of the special victory for which they were composed, while in both cases the individual victory and game F.

The study of the history of the Greek Palaestra shows most clearly one general principle, the recognition of which I believe to be essential to a correct understanding of the nature of this institu- tion, as well as of importance in an attempt to determine any ques- tion concerning the special points of any individual game.

This general principle concerning the origin and subsequent modification of Greek games is contained in the requirements of the social and poli- tical welfare of the ancient communities.

At least as to historical times, it has become quite clear to me that the various games were consciously meant to meet certain political wants, or were modified by these wants, perhaps without the full consciousness of purpose on the part of those who did thus modify them.

Especially after the Persian war, when the public Palaestrae became fully organised, they were more consciously meant to provide for the physical educa- tion of Greek youths, the ultimate aim of which education, as is well known, was to produce good citizens who could guard the integrity of the state as strong and agile soldiers.

No doubt in the subse- quent stages we find that this ultimate aim is lost sight of, and that what was to be a means to a higher end becomes the end in itself, this leading to an overstraining of the importance of the athletic games and to professional athletes.

Within this palaestric organisation we can distinguish various subdivisions corresponding to the various requirements of a good physical education.

When once the games had become systematised, the first broad distinction is between the heavy and light games ; the ftapiis and KOV J OS to which you draw at-, tention, those that tended to develop more the strength, and those that developed more the agility.

Boxing and the Pankration, for instance, are heavy gamesr; while running, jumping, and throwing the spear, are light.

A good- rurmer, a good jumper, an agile wrestler, a boxer with powerful arms for thrusting and skill in parrying, all tended to make a good soldier.

Nay, we have evidence that for weaknesses of special muscles a special course of exercise was undergone.

Nothing proves this con- sciousness of purpose in the form that directed these organisations better than the subsequent introduction of the hoplite running, in Ol.

The more the games were thus specialised and corresponded to separate requirements in man, the more did need become felt to have a game which encouraged the all-round man.

Such a game is most specifically Greek. Now the aim and essence of the Pent- athlon was thus to supplement the other, specialised, games, and to encourage and produce all-round strength and agility.

The more we recognise this fundamental truth concerning the Pentathlon, the more shall we have to bear in mind, that the aim and intention would always be to make the victory depend as far as possible upon the best man in all the five constituent contests or at least in as many as possible.

The fact that Pentathlon prize-vases very often have only re- presentations of three of the games, can be no guide as to the nature of the game itself, for the class of figures represented in these paint- ings is only influenced by artistic requirements, i.

It is an easy thing for a vase-painter or sculptor to repre- sent a youth as a jumper, a discus-thrower or a spear-thrower, for he need merely place in his hands halteres, a diskos, or a spear.

It is more difficult to represent among several others a wrestler or a runner. This can only be done with clearness by representing a pair of youths wrestling, or a number running, which is often repre- sented on Panathenaic vases destined to be prizes for one of these single games, but these are not subjects that can be easily composed into a number of figures placed together on a limited space, and each expressing part of the game illustrated by the whole group.

Thus it is that of the five games of the Pentathlon, three especially serve as pictorial types, i. But often vases evidently pentathlic have merely one scene.

I have met with Pentathlon vases with merely two games of the five, diskos and spear, or spear and halteres.

So a kylix in Paris is evidently pentathlic from the mythological scenes of struggle represented on the border of the outside, while in the medallion on the inside there is but one of the contests figured, namely a youth with halteres.

Finally let me point out that if in literature the Diskos is men- tioned before the Akontismos, this must be from literary reasons, if there is any design in the order at all.

The nature of the two games precludes the possibility of such a sequence. The Diskos as com- pared with the Akontismos was papvs, while the Akontismos was light and required above all things steadiness of eye and arm.

Now the effect of a great strain in hurling a heavy body at a dis- tance is that the hand and arm tremble for some time after, and are the opposite of steady.

Surely the throwing the hammer would in our day not be a good preparation for the shooting of an arrow. The familiar use of the Middle in a Causative sense con- sists of cases in which the object of the active verb is identical with the object of the causative middle, e.

For instance in Soph. I think I have broken down Donaldson's explanation, that ' Pindar uses a middle form for the future of active verbs signifying to utter a sound,' in my note on Nem.

In support of the subsidiary theory that the active future is used when the sense is deliberative or prohibitory only three passages are adduced.

Other cases in which the causative sense seems more appropriate than the 1 I am not here concerned with Attic middle futures of verbs signify- ing the exercise of the senses.

If it be true that a7rapx, Nem. Such is generally the construction of causal verbs in Sanskrit. In the face of Pyth. VoL ix. I approve an anonymous emendation mentioned by Mr Verrall, small ed.

As to Soph. In Soph. JSlectra, , TO. Herakleidae , Tao-o-erai, where he says ' not by himself but by the aid of his officers : hence the middle;' so that he seems to admit the possibility of the less frequent construction in the case of rayevo-ai.

Perhaps Eur. It is probable that many more cases could easily be found, and further that many cases have been misunderstood and altered by scribes and grammarians.

In the second class of cases which I have dealt with the object is the object of the authorization, in the first class the object is the object of ;th,e authorised action.

TK 62, text, v. Sundry additions to and corrections of the notes of the earlier volume have been incidentally introduced in the following pages.

The following extract from Professor Jebb's paper on Pindar is apposite. The Gigantomachia Pindar, Nem. The wedding of Heracles with Hebe Pind.

Pindar may have lived to see the eastern pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, by Paeonius, though not the western, by Alcamenes ; the subject of the eastern was the chariot-race of Pelops and Oenomaus Pind.

Pindar's mention of the 'fair-throned Hours ' evdpovot T S2poi, Pyth. At that very time Syracuse contained the famous statue of the limping Philoctetes, by Pythagoras of Khegium, of which Pliny says that those who looked at it seemed to feel the pain xxxiv.

Even if we hesi- tate to believe that the sculptor intended an allusion to Hiero 1 , we may well suppose that Pindar's comparison was suggested by the work of Pythagoras.

Pindar touches on a legend which represented Heracles in combat with Apollo and two other gods A similar contest between Heracles and Apollo was the subject of a group executed in Pindar's time about B.

The religious reserve with which Pindar alludes to the strife between Heracles and the god His reticence probably reflects the tone of the Delphic priesthood in regard to the closely kindred subject which he must have seen in their temple.

Paley on Iliad v. Of Thebes. Boeotian shield. Infant Herakles strangling serpents. Fourth cen- tury B. L Of Akragas. Two eagles with hare.

In field horned head of a young river-god. C Nem. IIL 80, Land tortoise symbol of Astarte 1 , Phoenician goddess of commerce.

Incuse square divided into five compartments, with M, I, and dolphin in the three whole squares. Earlier than B. Of Katana. Man-headed bull river-god ; above, water-fowl; beneath, river-fish.

Winged NikS with wreath in right hand moving quickly to the left. Before B. Wt "8 grs. Hare ; beneath it dolphin.

In exergue two dolphins. Fifth century B. Type adopted by Auaxilaos. He is said to have been his charioteer. The reason for regarding him as a Geldan immigrant to Syrakuse is because Pindar tells us Nem.

As this battle is mentioned in the ode Nem. In the new city they F. He was made by Hiero governor, cirirpoiros according to Schol. Gelo had given Chromios one of his own and Hiero's sisters in marriage, and had made him, with the other Brother-in-law, Aristonoo's, a guardian of his son.

It appears however that Polyzelos, brother of Gelo and Hiero, married Gelo's widow, Damareta Demarete , thus getting control over Gelo's son and heir, so that in supporting Hiero, Chromios was not necessarily betraying his trust.

He may well have despaired of his ward being able to cope with his paternal uncles, the youngest of whom, Thra- sybulos, was directly responsible for his ruin.

It is at any rate clear that Chromios was Hiero's chief supporter. As Akragas and Himera had just before the time of the composition of this ode, If so, he lived to see the futility of the policy he thus admired, which was doubtless partly owing to the division of the dynastic party after Hiero's death.

Chromios took active part in Hiero's martial enterprises, and as ambassador to Anaxilas, tyrant of Ehegion, between B. He won this Nemean victory, Pindar was in Sicily when this ode was recited before the banquet given in celebration of the victory at Chromios' house in Ortygia, at which the poet was apparently himself present.

The chorus per- formed it at the -npoBvpov, i. Mezger well compares Chromios with Theron, and says that his praises came straight from the poet's inmost heart.

It is therefore not surprising that the scene of the myth should lie in Thebes. The rhythm is Dorian.

The ode goes forth from Ortygia in honour of Zeus of Aetna, on the occasion of Chromios' Nemean victory. The exordium makes mention of gods, as the victor's merits are derived from them.

The highest object of ambition, celebration by an Epini- kian ode, has its occasion in victory. Praise of Sicily's sacred relation to Persephone, fertility, rich cities, glory in war, success in games even at Olympia.

This topic is dismissed. For it is Chromios' hospitality which brings the poet to his halls, and to him praise is due to confound various cavillers.

Men ought to develops natural gifts of strength and foresight, with both of which Chromios is endowed. One ought not to hoard, but to use wealth for one's own enjoyment and the benefit of friends, 32, Introductory mention of Herakles' paramount merits.

Myth of the infant Hdrakles and the two snakes. Teiresias' prophecy of Herakles' toilsome exploits and their final reward of peaceful bliss.

The application of the latter part of the myth to Chromios is sufficiently obvious to account for there being no formal conclusion to the ode. The main idea of the poem is to exalt the enjoyment, both in this life and hereafter, of ease, good cheer, and fame earned by the strenuous exercise of natural powers during youth and prime.

Chromios' ancestor, Herakles, afforded a conspicuous illustration of such a theme, and perhaps to some extent his marriage with Hebg presented a parallel to Chromios' splendid alliance.

There is no need to suppose that by reciting the infantine courage of Herakles the poet meant to imply that the valour of Chromios had been precocious.

On the other hand, the precocity of Herakles is a signal instance, as Aristarchos said, of the innate courage and vigour ascribed to his descendant.

The introduction of the prophecy of Teiresias is a natural device for bringing in the career and reward of Herakles, so that it is need- less to suppose, with Miiller Hist, of Gk.

Chromios very likely inspired the successful policy of Gelo and Hiero. Schmidt again seems to be mistaken in supposing that w.

Modern editors have generally paid too little attention to Aristarchos' view, but with this exception I agree with Mezger. There is a side allusion to Himera and Chromios' land-fights generally in v.

In an ode sung in Ortygia there would scarcely be any reference to the fight of Heloros, in which Syrakusans were defeated. There is nowhere a more prominent division of the ode than at v.

Yet this is inside Mezger's ofj. Moreover, vv. The main divisions then of the ode are vv. There is a possible bearing of the myth which has not, I believe, been noticed, namely, that Amphitrydn was a type of hospitality, so that Chromios' palace might suggest the scene of the myth in this connection.

The ode is one of the finest examples of Pindar's art. Especially admirable is the vigorous word-painting of the myth. This myth veils the trans- ference by Dorian colonists of the cult of Artemis Potamia from Elis to Ortygia, cf.

Accord- ing to analogy a. The word a,fj. Trvodv Perhaps it means ' the leader, ' whence the other quarters of the city branched.

Paley renders 0dXoj by ' pride. Mezger takes the latter interpreta- tion and quotes Pyth. For the appropriateness of the metaphor to the victory cf.

Here the poet's verses are the winged horses which will bear over the world the car, Chro- mios' victory.

For metaphor cf. Mr Wratislaw asks in a paper read before the Camb. More- over, Yet again, as the chief temples would have their foundations laid at the time of the founding of the city, ffbv has to cover more than two years.

The intervention of the suggested mention of Aetna's temples is iso- lated itself and isolates vv. Terpander Frag. Paley says, 'Lit. I think dperal would scarcely be used in the plural of one ' vic- tory,' which is all we have here.

For sentiment, cf. The meaning of the sentence is, ' The consumma- tion or ' first prize ' of highest re- nown ' i. For phrase cf. Perhaps there is a covert allusion to the temples of Demeter and her daughter built by Gelo.

The Schol. The grammar of the transition is well illustrated by the double accusative Aristoph. It is equivalent to a wros , ' choicest bloom.

Paley however, on Martial ix. Infra v. Mr Fanshawe suggests that the lemma, coming so close to iivaffrripa. The aor. It is generally taken as the object of ttrefiav.

I think the sense inferior and the construction ques- tionable, though it is true that ITTI- palvuv takes an accusative of place. Mommsen on Ol.

Mr Myers 'Thus shoot I arrows many and without falsehood have I hit the mark' scarcely repre- sents the original. Pindar has briefly mentioned five points on which a poet might dilate, the di- vine patronage of Sicily, its fer- tility, the wealth of its cities, its achievements in war and in games.

He has stated truths without exag- geration. According to L. For Chromios' hospitality cf. I therefore give the views of the chief authorities before my own.

In this difficult sentence the poet checks himself the sugges- tion of the necessity for doing so being a compliment to Sicily, Sy- rakuse and Hiero, the fact that he does so a compliment to Chromios.

For the sense given to Kaipbv cf. Mr Postgate has kindly sent me an interpreta- tion substantially the same as the above, and quotes Nem.

Mommsen after a Schol. An improvement in this line of inter- pretation seems to be "Tis men's lot when cavilling at the good to bring water to check smoke,' i.

The two last interpretations make too abrupt a disconnection of sense, not to mention the rare construc- tion which is assumed.

Mezger cites Strabo to defend the dat. Bergk would alter TI- X. Plutarch, Fragm. The connection of this difficult passage is not impaired by making the statement general.

Divers folk have divers arts. This comprehends the idea that it is the poet's work to perpetuate a victory as much as it is the work of men of action to gain one.

One must walk up- rightly and make the best use of natural powers. Strength, to wit, has its function in action, intellect in counsel, in the case of those who have an innate gift of foresight which class includes the poet and also, as is at once stated, Chromios.

OL ix. Teiv, Nem. Ill, dfj. For the expectations of men, born to sore trouble as all are, are uncertain for all alike.

Theognis, , rdv O. T-f p ; ' did thy father then beget thee to be a match for all men? T Tos aiuiv. Hermann uis apa or r. I incline to Bockh's beginning of v.

The adverb indicates the normal progress of the delivery as in The infant lamos too was visited by two snakes, but they came to feed him.

Paley suggests ; for the effect of the subsequent miracle would be impaired by such a pre- liminary display of power.

The use recalls the passive sense often given to tKiriirreiv, dirodave'iv. Ren- der simply ' had been laid in.

For the form in the text cf. For the synizesis cf. In the Lydo- Aeolic ode, For the episode of the infant Herakles and the serpents cf.

Whether the doors were left open at night, or had been opened in the early morning, or were opened by the serpents is left un- certain.

Paley's note. I do not think eAtWeo-tfcu, could mean to ' enfold ' with jaws. Aiax, commented on in note on Nem. Paley observes that this action is miraculous in a new- born infant.

A bold phrase both in con- struction and sense. Of course 0,7x6- yu. It is quite possible that there is some corruption, but it is impossible to establish a cor- rection.

Si- monides Frag. There is a slight pre- ponderance of MS. For confusion of fj. Theokritos makes Herakles nine months old. Plautus agrees with Pindar as to the age.

On a coin of Thebes see Plate facing Title the child does not seem to represent a new-born babe. Greek women seem not to have had special night gear.

Bergk recklessly alters wofffflv to iraialv. So best MSS. The Tricli- nian MSS. For the lengthen- ing of -ov before a vowel cf.

The Triclinian MSS. Oe'iav, Od. Paley rightly explains fj. Others simply render it 'affected by,' comparing Soph.

Zeus, by transmit- ting superhuman qualities to his son. Thus Sercrtws KT. Archilochos, Frag. For the junction of the definite article with the definite pronoun cf.

V 5' d Ktipios I irapy rts, Oed. Bergk reading v. Hermann reads v. Keeping fj. Eauchenstein, Hermann and Bergk propose n.

OTei'x-] Cf. The Phlegra where the gods fought the Giants was in Thrace. Goodwin, For the ace. The phrase however occurs Nem. Saivvira ydfji Cf.

QV, vofj. The ode was apparently sung at Athens. It is a processional monostrophic ode. It is impossible to draw any sound inference about the place of composition.

Bockh fancies that it was composed at Nemea after the battle of Plataea with Fragment 53 [45]. Perhaps the opening allusion to the Homeridae was due to Salamis being one of the aspirants to the honour of being Homer's birthplace.

The rhythm like that of Nem. He ought still, since his Fate has led him straight along the path his fathers trod and caused him to do honour to Athens by winning at Nemea , to win often at the Isthmus and Delphi.

When the Pleiades are seen, Orion is to be expected. Salamis can rear fighting men such as the Trojan warrior Aias and the pankratiast Timodemos.

The Acharnians were famous of old. The citizens are bidden to celebrate Timode'mos' return as victor from Nemea. The opening to which Pindar refers is probably preserved by Theokritos, xvu.

It is as old as Alkman, cf. Aios K. For the metaphor from laying a foundation cf. The grove was of cypresses.

Note-that piy is ace. Observe that K0fffj. Paley's noteHes. Catullus, LXVI. The 'fi probably represents f or f af, cf. So Simonides quoted by a Schol.

For the opposi- tion of Aias to Hektor cf. Bockh, -faroi. He is regarded as the hero Eponymos of the Peloponnese.

There was perhaps some special reason why the Timo- demidae do not appear in connec- tion with the Olympian games. Note the emphatic position, and cf.

He won this victory many years before the composition of the ode, as he seems to have been well advanced in age vv. The poet seems to apologise for his delay v.

From vv. The ode was per- formed in the hall or temple of the college of theori. The date is evidently prior to the Athenian conquest of Aegina Schmidt fancifully connects the ode with Pyth.

It was sung by a chorus of youths v. The Rhythm is Aeolian, or Lydian with Aeolian measures v. The muse is entreated to go to Aegina on the anniver- sary of a Nemean victory, where a chorus awaits her.

An ode is the highest object of a victor's ambition. The muse is entreated to inspire the poet to begin the hymn with Zeus of Nemea and to praise the country of the Myrmidons.

Aristophanes' son, having done justice to his fine form, has attained to the highest achievements. One cannot well pass the pillars which Herakles set up at the limit of his Western explorations.

The poet is digressing. His theme is the race of Aeakos. It is the height of justice to praise the worthy.

But it is not good to yearn for distinctions for which one's inborn nature has not fitted one. The victor need not do so, as he inherits worth.

The legend of Peleus is appropriate to him. Exploits of Peleus. Innate worth is best. Acquired capacities are fruitless.

The above doctrine is illustrated by Achilles' childhood, by the aged Cheiron and by the manhood of Achilles. Invocation of Zeus. This beseems Aristokleidas who has brought glory to Aegina and the college of Pythian theori.

Trial proves a man's excellence in all stages of life. Four divisions of life bring four several virtues. The victor partakes of all four. Dedication of the ode.

As the eagle swoops from afar upon its prey, so the poet can seize upon the theme of a long past victory. But the flight of chattering crows has a lower range.

By favour of Kleio the victor has won glory from Nemea, Epidauros and Megara. For special mention of the full moon of the Olympian festival cf.

The Nemean Festi- val was probably not on the new. We cannot however be sure that the poet wishes to represent himself as present in Aegina, as rdvdf vacrov v.

The verb should literally be ren- dered 'do thou bid attend,' as in II. Alkman, Frag. According to a Schol. Aristarchos and Am- monios took Uranos to be given as the father of the Muse, reading either three datives or three geni- tives, but it is presumable that Pindar began with Zeus and fol- lowed Hesiod.

On this point Diodorus Siculus iv. Bergk alters needlessly to QvpavoT a hypothetical form for Ovpavia. It is better to take Kpeovn as a dat. Surely it is appropriate to any Nemean or Olympian ode, even if nothing special be said about Zeus.

More- over cf. Kav vaLSuv oapoiai. For undetected instances of causal middle cf. The Myrmidons were sup- posed to have migrated with Peleus from Aegina to Phthiotis.

Tov dyopav. I prefer ' in reference to thy standard, Kleio. Moschopulos from one or two MSS. The lemma, which ought to be in L.

Paley renders, ' deep-soiled,' not ' with low-lying plain. It is scarcely a historic present, which is rare in Pindar, but cf.

For sentiment cf. Pausanias n. The con- quest of sea-monsters by Herakles is probably a mythical dress given to the suppression of pirates by Hel- lenic mariners.

T' tpevv-. A Schol. Bockh inserts e-, Her- mann OUT'. Curtius rejects the connection with rtyyw, which is given by a Schol.

Paley; 'Where he came to land at the bourne which sped him on his homeward way,' i. For the genitive cf. Paley renders 'defined the limits of the earth,' Schol.

For infinitive cf. He is complimenting the victor, not, as Leop. Schmidt thinks, warning him against unwise ambition.

Mr Postgate takes tv IT. We must admit some unique forms. His reference to dtdopKev, Nem. Peleus is represented as still rejoicing in the renown of his spear cutting, sung by rhapsodists, cf.

For Peleus cf. P41eus overcame the host of the mortal Akastos son of Pelias according to a Schol. Pherekydes related that he was assisted by lasdn and the Dioskuroi and also the divijie Thetis.

For hiatus cf. Mommsen, Adnot. The second in- stance is perhaps not to the point. Troilus, tyrujxv, wj Zyrjfj. Note the omission of any mention of He"rakles in connection with Telamdn and lolaos.

We use 'nobility' for the qualities which ennoble. The aorist is gn6mic. Generally dperat means either 'merits,' 'virtues,' or 'victories' or 'noble deeds.

The boy had small weapons. Iff a T'. Ti would be unsatisfactory. Moreover mention of Achilles' panting seems in bad taste. Dissen and others take the gen.

The MSS. Ion, , says that Kapirbs is not used of children, but of seed, as Moiin KO. For bracelets in connection with Thetis, cf. In uncials p and TT were very easily confused.

I decidedly incline to the former explanation. AapSdviiw re. Perhaps the kinship in prophetic faculty as well as in blood accounts for his being here called cousin of the seer Helenos rather than of any other son of Priamos.

But Helenos was connected with Aegina by the ser- vices which he rendered to the Aeakid Neoptolemos, for whom cf. Tithonos was brother to Priamos.

See v. Mezger compares Aesch. Trpewris with a copula. For d-yX. HvOiov Qedpiov. To this college the victor doubtless be- longed.

There were similar colleges of perpetual ffeupol at Mantinea, Thuk. Miiller, Dorier, n. This closing pas- sage is very difficult to under- stand.

TOS against taicpos which would hardly need the article. Bender ' The sum of mortal life brings even four virtues, for it bids us as a fourth virtue exercise pru- dence with regard to the present.

But looking back to the exploits of Achilles aet. That he is speaking of the virtues proper to each age is clear from v. Aristokleidas was not necessarily approaching old age at the date of this ode any more than Damophilos, Pyth.

But Pindar would hardly apply the metaphor of honey so often to his verse e. The main idea is a sweet thought. Tos irodosirap-rjv got milk and honey.

Perhaps the veKrap X. VTOV of Philostratos, In Vitis Sopliistt. For the draught of song cf. For the eagle seizing the hare, cf. See Plate.

Simonides, Frag. The poet means that it is easy for him to give lively interest to a distant event in a case where the ode of an inferior poet would fall flat.

For omens iu names cf. For prep, with -0ev, cf. The phrase dtdoptc. This last victory was won B. The ode was most likely processional, as it is monostrophic.

The rhythm is Lydian with Aeolian measures. It was probably sung before a banquet as a irpoKwuiov v. Feasting and song are the best recompense for severe struggles.

Had Timokritos been alive he would have played the lyre on the occasions of his son's victories at Nemea, Athens and Thebes. Telamon's exploits as Herakles' comrade.

Achievements entail suffering. The poet checks himself and bids the victor strive boldly against calumnies. The poet again checks himself.

Praise of the victor and his family. Praise of his trainer Melesias. For the phrase cf. Mommsen how- ever [comparing Pyth. However, Plutarch, de Tranqu.

Paley says the metaphor is from drawing arrows out of a quiver, but the epithet fiafffias rather suggests choosing from a rich store.

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